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|Title:||Eнергетична складова національної безпеки КНР|
Power component of national security of PRC
|Authors:||Булик, Максим Володимирович|
Котов, А. Г.
|Abstract:||У статті проаналізовано стратегію та стан енергетики КНР. Розглянуто взаємозалежність економічної та енергетичної безпеки. Значну увагу приділено дослідженню складових енергетичної політики Китайської Народної Республіки. Намічені основні проблеми та перепони на шляху до проведення ефективної та раціональної політики у сфері енергетики.|
Energy security is one of the most important components of national security. It contains immunity of citizens and the state from the threat’s deficit of all kinds of energy resources that can result from a number of factors, including natural, technological and political. At the present level of the world economy development securing of energy recourses is the basis of economic development which ensures social stability and national security. Energy security as a derivative of the energy supply is one of the main factors that influence the foreign policy and the situation in the international arena. PRC pays a special attention to energy security and this policy was allowed to create a strong economic potential. Therefore, in recent decades, regardless of the situation of oil prices in international markets is the rapid growth of Chinese demand for oil and petroleum products. Thus, China’s energy policy is determined by the rapid growth of its economy. Study of China’s energy policy is not only important to determine the energy security of China, but is the basis for forecasting global role of China in the XXI century. Review of China’s energy cooperation with other countries also has obvious importance for the completeness ideas about the content of the present stage to global energy security. Since China has adopted the policy of reform and opening up in the late 1970s, its energy industry has made great advances. China is now the world's largest energy producer. It has built up a comprehensive energy supply system comprising coal, electricity, petroleum, natural gas, and new and renewable energy resources. Its universal energy service and civil energy use conditions have markedly improved. Despite the fact that China has rich and diverse energy resources it ranks first in the world by population. China’s energy system is facing severe challenges. There is immense scarcity in high-quality energy resources such as oil and natural gas. Fossil energy resource per capita in China is half of the world average. Specially, oil and natural gas per capita is only the 11.0 percent and 4.0 percent of the world average respectively. China’s energy structure in 2014 is as follows: 63% - coal, 30.5% - oil, 6.21% - gas. China is the world's top coal producer and ranks third in the amounts of coal reserves. It is approximately self-sufficient in coal, with a production of 2.38 billion ton and a consumption of 2.37 billion tons. China consumes more coal than any other country. Its share of the world coal production was 48% in 2009 and 28% in 2000. Although China is still a major crude oil producer, it became an oil importer in the 1990s. China became dependent on imported oil for the first time in its history in 1993 due to demand rising faster than domestic production. The author notes that at the present stage China’s foreign policy on ensuring national energy security reduces to two main areas: energy efficiency and the diversification of energy sources. In recent years, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Central Asia are key areas of China’s energy diplomacy. Largest suppliers of oil to China today are the state of the Middle East: the share of Chinese imports of raw materials is more than 50%. At the same time, the region has strategic importance for the future energy security of China. Africa has become the second largest supplier of oil to China, accounts for about 25% of total oil imports. Due to the active introduction of Chinese energy companies in Africa, Beijing has been able to reduce its dependence on imported Middle Eastern oil. Thus, at present, China plays an important role in the world energy market. China will continue to conduct energy diplomacy and strengthening international energy cooperation to ensure energy and national security.
|Description:||Булик М. В. Eнергетична складова національної безпеки КНР / М. В. Булик, А. Г. Котов // Вісник Маріупольського державного університету. Серія : Історія. Політологія / за заг. ред. К. В. Балабанова. – Маріуполь : МДУ, 2015. – Вип. 13–14. – С. 189–195.|
|Appears in Collections:||Булик Максим Володимирович|
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